A SHORT HISTORY OF THE ARAB-ISRAELI CONFLICT
PART 1: FROM 1. ZIONIST CONGRESS TO DECLARATION OF AN INDEPENDENT ISRAEL
In 1887, the first Zionist Congress met in Basel-Switzerland.
In 1886,the book “Der Judenstaat” (The Jewish Land) published by a Jewish journalist Thedor Herzl.
In the 1. Zionist Congress,people talked about this book and the idea of a Jewish country.
At the end of this congress the Basel program has published.On this program there was the providence to creat a Jewish land in Palestine and that all members of international Zionists movement should move to Palestine for creating a Jewish state.Till 1903, 25.000 Jews went to Palestine then Between 1904-1914, 40.000 other Jews went to Palestine.
In 1917,an English minister Lord Arthur Balfour,wrote an official letter to leader of zionists (Lord Rothshild) and said that he will help and support Jews to make a Jewish country in Palestine.
This letter is called:Balfour Declaration.
Foreign office, November 2nd, 1917.
Dear Lord Rothschild,
I have much pleasure in conveying to you, on behalf of his majesty’s government, the following declaration of sympathy with jewish zionist aspirations which has been submitted to, and approved by, the cabinet.
“His majesty’s government view with favour the establishment in Palestine of a national home for the Jewish people, and will use their best endeavours to facilitate the achievement of the object, it being clearly understood that nothing shall be done which may prejudice the civil and religious’ rights of existing non-Jewish communities in palestine, or the rights and political status enjoyed by Jews in any other country”.
I should be grateful if you would bring this declaration to the knowledge of the zionist federation.
(signed) Arthur James Balfour”
In 1918,England occupated Palestine.In 25th April 1920,Palestine became a British Mandate.
Hundred thousands of Jews went to the British Mandate of Palestine to join the Zionism project.
In August 1929,Jews and Arabs started to fight.English police killed 110 Palestinians.And 133 Jews died.
Till 1936,Zionist militant group “Irgun Zvai Leumi”,attacked Palestine and Jordan many times.
In July 1937,a commission headed by minister Lord Peel suggested that Palestine should be split to two parts between Jews and Arabs.
Palestinians and Arabs refused this suggestion and wanted the Jewish people’s exodus to finish and to become a uniter country that gives minorities their rights.The fights between Jews and Arabs continued until England send troops to Palestine-in 1938.
In 1947,England gave the responsibility of ending Arab-Jew conflict to the United Nations.
The United Nations suggested to split Palestine to two parts,56.5% to Jews and 43.5% to Arabs.
On 29th November 1947,this plan approved by votes of 33 countries but Palestinians refused this plan.
On 15th May 1948.England wanted to end its mandate in Palestine but before this many fights started.
The English society started to dispute to England’s presence in Palestine,because many of the English soldiers were dying in Palestine.Also English people were angry about U.S.’s force to send more Jews to Palestine.
Jewish militants started the “ethnic cleaninsing” in December 1948.Israel declared its independence in 14 May 1948-in Tel Aviv.
PART 2: WARS
Militants of Irgun and Lehi massacred many of Palestinians in 9th April,in Deir Yasin village.The massacre made thousands of Palestinians escape to Lebanon,Egypt and the West Bank.
One day after Israel declared its independence,Jordan,Egypt,Lebanon,Iraq and Syria attacked Israel,but Israeli troops pushed them back.
After these fights,Egypt took Gazza and Jordan taked a small part near Jerusalem with West Bank.Those were %25 of Palestine.
In 1969,Yasser Arafat created a group:Palestine Liberation Organisation.
On 5th June 1967,”6 Days War” started.The map of the Middle East changed in this war.
Israel invaded Gazza and Sinai Peninsula from Egypt,Golan hills from Syria,and occupied West Bank and Eastern Jerusalem.
The Israeli lands increased by two after this war.
United Nations passed their 242. declarasion.In this declarasion U.N. refused the new lands that Israel invaded at this war,and they asked Israel t withdraw from this lands.
In this war 500.000 Palestinians became refuuges.
In 1973 Egypt and Syria attacked Israel because they were still occupying Gazza,Sinai Peninsula and the Golan heights.This started the Yom Kippur War (Ramadan War).After 3 weeks of this war,Israel gained more lands than it had in 1967.In this war Egypt and Syria’s 8500 soldiers died and Israel lost 6000 soldiers.
At the end of this war Saudi Arabia started an oil-ambargo against countries who supported Israel.This ambargo continued till March-1974.
In October-1973,the United Nations Security Council asked the Arabs-and the Israelis to end the fightings as soon as possible.
In 1974,Yasser Arafat made his first speech in the United Nations General Assembly and said that he wanted peace.
In 1977 the political party named Likud,which was the inheritor of Irgun and Lehi,won the Israeli elections.
Likud wanted Israel to get all lands in Palestine and Jordan.Agriculture minister Ariel Sharon was a member of Likud.
In 1979,Egyptian minister Enver Sedat signed a peace treaty with Israel.
Ariel Sharon started a war with Lebanon in 1982.With support of Falangists,he caused the Sabra-Shatila Massacre in Lebanese refugee camps.
In 1987,the rebellion named “Intifada” started in Gaza.After a short time,it started in the West Bank too.In the same year,another group in Palestine named “Hamas” was created by Sheyh Ahmed Yasin.
In 1988,Palestine Liberation Organization with the leadership of Arafat, accepted U.N.’s 242. decision and the idea of
“Palestine in 2 parts”.
In 30th October 1991,Palestine,Syria,Jordan and Israel met in the Madrid Conference.
A peace process began when The Workers Party came to leadership of government in Israel in 1992.
In 1993,Israel and Arafat signed the Oslo Peace Treaty.After this,Arafat could come back to Palestine.
In 1994 Palestine Liberation Organization and Israel met in Caire.According to the treaty that was drawn in these meetings,Israel should leave many parts of Gaza and Erila (a city in West Bank).
In 24th September 1995 The 2.Oslo Treaty was signed in Egypt (Taba) and Washington.
This treaty solited West Bank to three parts.
A part:West Bank’s %7 would give more of the control to Palestinians.
B part:This part would be controlled both by Palestine and Israel.This part were %21 of West Bank.
C part:This part would be Israel’s.
In 4th November 1995 Rabin has been killed by a Jew.Perez became the new prime minister.In 1996 Hamas did many actions.
Israel bombed Lebanon for 3 weeks.In May Netanyahu won the elections.Netanyahu started some arkeolojical works in Mesjid-ul Aksa and made all Muslims very angry.Israel gave many parts of El Halil to Palestinians.In October 1998 Wye River Treaty signed.The treaty stated that Israel should leave West Bank to Palestine.
But many Jews disputed to this treaty and it made Israeli government’s Rightist party fall down.In May,Ehud Barak from the
Workers Party won the elections.
In September-1999 a new Wye River Treaty had been signed.But Israel didn’t leave West Bank and continued to occupate here.
In 5 years of peace process nobody got anything.It made Palestinian people angry.In 2000,Israel left Lebanon.
In September Ariel Sharon visited Masjid-ul Aksa.Palestinians protested this and those protests started the
second intifada,named “Al Aksa Intifada”.
In the last months of 2000,Intifada was rising up as a protest to Israel’s occupating in Gaza and West Bank.
Barak left the government in December.In February Ariel Sharon won the elections.
Sharon continued his politics against Israel by more attacks and raids.
Palestinians were resisting with suicide attackings.
After suicide attackings,Israel occupied almost all West Bank.All through 2002,Israel raided Palestinian cities so many times,and Palestinians lived a so difficult year.
In April Israeli soldiers went to Jenin Refugee Camp and killed many of Palestinian civilians.Palestinians called this a massacre, but Israel said they just killed 52 people.In November 2002 Netanyahu said all Oslo treaties are cancelled.
In January 2003,Likud with leadership of Ariel Sharon won the elections in Israel.In August 2003,the armistice that Palestinian groups declared finished because Israel continue its attackings.
In March 2004, Hamas’s leader Sheyh Ahmet Yasin was killed by Israeli soldiers in leadership of Ariel Sharon.In 11th November 2004,Palestine’s leader Yasser Arafat died.In January 2006 Ehud Olmert became the Prime Minister of Israel.And he continued Ariel Sharon’s policy.
CIA Factbook –